Yoga is an age-old technological know-how made up of various disciplines of thoughts and body. It has originated in India 2500 years ago and continues to be effective in bringing normal health and well being to any person who does it often. The phrase yoga is based upon a Sanskrit verb Yuja. It approach to attach, to culminate or to concur. it’s the culmination of thoughts and body or the end result of Jiva and Shiva (soul and the popular spirit). it’s also a fruits of Purush and Prakriti (Yin and Yang).
The time period Yoga has a very vast scope. There are numerous colleges or systems of Yoga. Dnyanayoga (Yoga through knowledge), Bhaktiyoga (Yoga thru devotion), Karmayoga (Yoga through movement), Rajayoga (Royal or ideal Yoga) and Hathayoga (Yoga through balancing contrary principles of frame). All of those faculties of Yoga are not always very exclusive from each different. they’re as a substitute like threads of the equal material, entangled into each different. For lots of years, Yoga has been regarded upon as an effective manner of self-development and non secular enlightenment. some of these systems essentially have this equal reason; handiest the ways of reaching it are little special for each of them. In its maximum famous shape, the time period Yoga has come to accomplice with the closing of those structures which is Hathayoga. For the reason of this text too, the time period Yoga is used with the equal meaning. although, with regards to Philosophy of Yoga, that is at the quit of this text, the time period Yoga can have a broader scope.
Asana and Pranayama
let’s take an in depth take a look at the main components of Hathayoga i.e. Asana and Pranayama.
Asana means acquiring a frame posture and retaining it so long as one’s body allows. Asana, while achieved rightly consistent with the regulations mentioned above, render substantial physical and mental blessings. Asana are looked upon as the initial step to Pranayama. With the exercise of Asana there’s a balancing of opposite standards in the body and psyche. It additionally facilitates to take away inertia. advantages of Asana are more desirable with longer renovation of it. Asana have to be strong, constant and first-rate. here is the precis of standard regulations to be observed for doing Asana.
precis of rules:
- everyday breathing
- focused stretching
three. stable and best postures (sthiram sukham asanam)
four. minimum efforts (Prayatnay shaithilyam)
- No comparisons or competition with others
- No jerks or fast actions. keep a gradual and consistent pace.
each asana has its very own blessings and a few common benefits together with stability, flexibility, higher hormonal secretion, feeling refreshed and rejuvenated. it is a misconception that an Asana (Yoga stretch) needs to be tough to do to be able to be beneficial. most of the simplest Asana render most of the not unusual advantages of Yoga to their fullest. except, the beauty of Yoga is within the truth that at a now not-so-perfect degree maximum of the advantages are nonetheless to be had. which means even a novice advantages from Yoga as much as an professional.
of their quest to find a method to the miseries of human body and mind, the founders of Yoga found a part of their answers within the nature. They watched the birds and animals stretching their bodies particularly fashion to eliminate the inertia and malaise. based totally upon those observations, they created Yoga stretches and named them after the birds or animals or fish that inspired these stretches. as an instance, matsyasana (fish pose), makarasana (crocodile pose), shalabhasana (grasshopper pose), bhujangasana (cobra pose), marjarasana (cat pose), mayurasana (peacock pose), vrischikasana (scorpion pose), gomukhasana (cow’s mouth pose), parvatasana (mountain pose), vrikshasana (tree pose) and many others.
the various Asana can be extensively labeled based upon the sort of strain on the stomach. most of the ahead bending Asana are high-quality pressure Asana as they placed nice pressure at the belly through crunching it e.g. Pashchimatanasana, Yogamudra (Yoga symbol pose), Hastapadasana (hand and ft pose), Pavanmuktasana (wind loose pose) etc. The backward bending Asana are the poor strain Asana as they take stress faraway from the stomach e.g. Dhanurasana (bow pose), Bhujangasana (cobra pose), Naukasana (boat pose) and many others. each varieties of Asana deliver exquisite stretch to the back and stomach and enhance both those organs. Alternating among superb and poor stress at the equal region of the frame intensifies and enhances blood flow in that place. The muscle organization in use receives more supply of oxygen and blood due to the stress on that spot. E.g. in Yogamudra (symbol of Yoga), the lower abdomen gets high quality pressure due to which Kundalini is awoke. Hastapadasana refreshes all nerves inside the returned of the legs and also inside the back. As a end result you experience fresh and rejuvenated. Vakrasana gives a terrific massage to the pancreas and liver and therefore is suggested for diabetic patients.
practising Pranayama is one of the ways of having rid of intellectual disturbances and physical sick health. Pranayama approach controlled and extended span of breath. Prana approach breath. It also approach life pressure. Ayama method controlling or elongation. just like a pendulum calls for twice long to come again to its unique role, the exhalations in Pranayama are two times longer than the inhalations. the primary reason of Pranayama is to carry mental balance and restrain goals by way of controlling respiration. respiratory is a function of self reliant frightened system. with the aid of bringing the involuntary procedure of respiratory underneath control of mind, the scope of volition is broadened. Pranayama is a bridge among Bahiranga (exoteric) Yoga and Antaranga (introspective or esoteric) Yoga. A body that has turn out to be stable via Asana and has been cleansed through Kriya (cleansing procedures) is prepared for Pranayama. on the other hand Pranayama prepares the mind and body for meditational and spiritual exercise of Yoga such as Dhyana, Dharana and Samadhi. On physical degree, practice of Pranayama will increase blood in oxygen, eventually fresh and rejuvenating the mind and the nerves. here are some physical blessings of Pranayama.
a. Lungs, chest, diaphragm turn out to be stronger and healthier.
b. ability of lungs is multiplied.
c. slow changing pressure creates a form of massage to all organs inside the stomach hollow space.
d. Purifies blood with the aid of growing blood’s ability to soak up more oxygen.
e. mind capabilities higher with more oxygen within the blood.
f. Neuromuscular coordination improves.
g. frame becomes lean and the skin glows.
There are eight important Pranayama particularly, Ujjayi, Suryabhedan, Sitkari, Shitali, Bhastrika, Bhramari, Murchha, Plavini. among these, Ujjayi is the most famous Pranayama. Pranayama consists of four elements in the following order:
1) Puraka (managed inhalation)
2) Abhyantara Kumbhaka (protecting breath in)
three) Rechaka (controlled exhalation)
four) Bahya Kumbhaka (retaining breath out).
The ratio of those elements to each different is commonly 1:four:2:four with some exceptions. Patanjali’s Yogasutra agrees with this ratio at the side of many other scriptures. For the motive of average nicely-being, practising the first 3 elements is sufficient. A non secular practitioner typically practices all 4 components consisting of the final one i.e. Bahya Kumbhaka. such a practitioner additionally does many extra repetitions than a person who does it for popular fitness and nicely-being. Out of the 4 elements of Pranayama, it is the Abhyantara Kumbhaka that is basically identified with Pranayama. there is one more Kumbhaka that occurs spontaneously and is called Keval Kumbhaka.
Bandha (Locks) are very vital to the practice of Pranayama. Mulabandha (locking the anus), Jalandharbandha (locking the throat area or jugular notch), Udiyanabandha (locking the abdomen or diaphragm) and Jivhabandha (locking the tongue) are the 4 locks that are achieved during Pranayama. relying upon the reason of Pranayama (religious or general fitness), locks are performed. Mulabandha, Jalandharbandha and Udiyanabandha are the common Bandha finished by using every person. Jivhabandha is obligatory most effective if executed for non secular purposes.
characteristics of Yoga
permit’s test some of the chief traits of Yoga.
1) Yoga is not an exercising.
To understand the idea of Yoga one have to take into account that the positions in Yoga aren’t physical games however bodily stretches and preservation of stretches. you may describe Yoga in terms of Yogic stretches or Yogic practices. acquiring a body position by way of stretching the muscle mass and then keeping this function as long as one’s body lets in, that is what Yogic stretches are. Yoga requires very smooth and controlled motions and a slow constant pace. To reap this one desires to have total awareness of mind even as doing Yoga. The moves in Yoga are smooth, sluggish and controlled. assessment with others is significantly discouraged. Doing some thing past one’s ability simply out of competition commonly results in hurting one’s frame and hence is significantly discouraged. inhaling Yoga remains regular unlike many aerobic physical games. Yoga is likewise Isotonic unlike bodybuilding exercises, which might be isometric in nature. In isotonic stretches, period of the muscle mass will increase while tone remains the same as against the isometric exercises wherein length of the muscle groups stays the same whilst the tone adjustments. In Isotonic stretches, frame is stretched in a particular way and maintained that way for some time.
2) Longer preservation and less repetitions (as per the body’s capability).
benefits of Yoga are superior with the protection of a frame stretch. Longer the renovation better could be the effect. but one can’t force oneself into preserving the stretch longer than the body can undergo. every and each position is satisfactory and stable (Sthiram Sukham Asanam). Sthiram approach consistent. Sukham means excellent and Asanam approach a body posture or position. The proper function for you is that during which your body stays regular (sthiram) and that’s excellent and at ease to you (sukham). the instant a stretch will become insufferable and uncomfortable and the body starts shaking, one needs to come out of that role in a completely sluggish, smooth and controlled manner. There might be more repetitions and shorter maintenance for a amateur. With greater exercise, the repetitions could be fewer and preservation may be longer. After doing Yoga one have to simplest sense satisfactory and clean and nothing else. if you sense tired or fatigued or any part of your body aches, it most effective way which you have attempted past your capability.
3) accept as true with your body. practice minimum efforts:
With the exercise of Yoga, you also learn how to believe your body’s ability to development in terms of flexibleness without conscious efforts. so long as the aim is in thoughts and the frame is stretched most effective to its contemporary potential, the flexibility develops on its own. One desires to simply focus on breath, consciousness on the present kingdom of the frame pose and revel in that pose as lengthy because it feels secure. ‘Prayatnay Shaithilyam’ manner minimum efforts. although there may be a super function described and desired for each asana, no person is compelled into attaining the correct role. Yoga is performed with the consider that flexibility is received after a non-stop and ordinary practice. there is a message right here and that is to have confidence in the unknown. This message together with the stepped forward endocrine characteristic, higher muscle tone, calmer thoughts and increased high-quality outlook may be fantastically useful for recovery from any infection.
four) focused stretching:
The ability to stretch or stress one muscle organization at the same time as enjoyable the relaxation of the body is known as centered stretching. as an instance if a selected Asana is based upon stretching the belly as the main muscle institution (the pivotal muscle mass), then the relaxation of the frame is cozy while the stomach is stretched or compelled. One has to watch for useless straining of those muscular tissues which can be imagined to be at ease. first of all that is hard to comply with nevertheless it turns into less complicated with some exercise. This habit of differentiating among distinct muscle groups for the pressure will become very beneficial in other areas of life too. It enables you to relax better whilst riding all through rush hour. even as doing normal each day duties it makes you privy to the pointless anxiety on unique parts of your body. you’re watchful even even as speaking to a person or at the same time as brushing your teeth or while stuck in a traffic jam. You learn to ask yourself, ‘Am I conserving my breath, are my shoulders tense, is my neck stiff, are my arms curled?’ etc. etc. those acts are unnecessary and that they burn up power. Yoga teaches you the way to relax and offers you time free of issues and regrets, impatience and anxieties.
monitoring your breathing is an crucial a part of Yoga. commonplace errors consisting of holding of breath or breathing deliberately occur for the duration of Yoga. both those mistakes should be prevented. protecting again on breath gives headaches, fatigue and as a result the advantages of Yoga are misplaced by way of wrong or inadequate breathing.
6) Anantha Samapatti (Merging with the infinite):
last aim of Yoga is the amalgamation of self into the extra self. Yuja method to combine or to attach. A connection of Atma and Parmatma is the merging of the body and the spirit. Yoga is a manner of life. it’s a complete integration. according to Patanjali (founder of Yoga), two things outline Yoga postures; a strong and relaxed body posture and Anantha Samapatti. therefore you can not separate physical postures from meditation. In fact a frame that has come to be flexible and regular through practice of numerous positions turns into a good foundation for the last transcendental nation of thoughts (Samadhi). The kriya (cleaning procedures) purify the body. Mudra and bandha deliver the necessary balance of mind and attention, to begin with on one’s respiratory (pranadharana) after which on God (Ishwarpranidhana). initially the thoughts wanders plenty and that’s o.k. One must let it wander. Later one need to remember his breaths and should have a look at the inner and outer glide of air thru the air passages. (pranadharna). this can allow him to concentrate better on himself (sakshibhavana). within the beginning it will be hard to pay attention because the body postures are not that regular. but with exercise it will become higher and better. For this one ought to purposely dispose of his thoughts from frame posture and focus it on to the respiratory process (pranadharana).
benefits of Yoga
if you follow the fundamental rules, numerous advantages can be reaped. preservation of body stretches makes the body supple, lean, flexible and stable. respiratory techniques purify the blood and cleanse nasal passages and sinuses. pressure comfort is the finest of all of the benefits. enjoyable positions in Yoga educate you to loosen up your muscles and let the gravity paintings in your frame. The ability to distinguish among tension on unique elements of the frame, i.e. to stretch one muscle organization even as relaxing all the others teaches you to loosen up and not waste power throughout your day by day recurring. The part approximately awareness is crucial in providing remedy to your mind from fear and stress of everyday sports. here is an in depth study a number of the essential blessings of Yoga.
- pressure alleviation
pressure, tension, anxiety are the inevitable functions of current day existence. Yoga offers many strategies to cope up with the pressure and anxiety. A pressure unfastened thoughts reduces the chances of catching a disease to half of, this has been widely recognized by now. Yoga teaches very powerful respiration and enjoyable techniques to reap this. Yoga also helps you to feel secure quicker and lift your energy reserve by coaching you a way to permit the gravity paintings in your frame. half of of the fatigue in any pastime comes from improper and insufficient respiratory and with the aid of retaining breath unnecessarily. Yoga teaches you a way to breathe properly and the way no longer to make your body worrying and stiff even as doing different daily duties too. The principle of targeted stretching teaches you a way to not waste electricity throughout your every day ordinary. It makes you aware of the pointless anxiety on extraordinary elements of your frame. Yoga teaches you to loosen up completely and gives you time free of worries and regrets and impatience and anxieties. human beings having busy schedules who are used to being in action all of the time, need to remember the fact that enjoyable isn’t against the law or now not a waste of time. at the contrary it gives you new strength to do your responsibilities higher.
- Feeling energized and refreshed
ok respiratory plays a tremendous function in rejuvenating and fresh thoughts and body. breathing techniques in Yoga offer plentiful deliver of oxygen to the lungs, cleanse nasal passages and sinuses and accordingly help experience refreshed. A body that has come to be lean and bendy with stretches and preservation of the stretches receives purified with the aid of breathing strategies and becomes energized. diverse Yoga stretches result in a balanced secretion of hormones, which subsequently rejuvenates the entire frame and one feels refreshed and energized as a end result.
- Flexibility of thoughts and frame
other than the enjoyable effect, yoga additionally consists of many frame stretches which whilst maintained for a couple of minutes supply a excellent flexibility to our muscle tissue. One begins wondering, ‘Am I the identical person who used to be so stiff?’ in lots of chronic problems of the spine, Yoga has helped many people to reduce the frequency and intensity of the sickness together with spondylitis, arthritis etc. renovation of body stretches makes the body supple, lean, flexible and strong. in the procedure, now not simplest your frame but also your mind becomes bendy. The mind acquires religion that things can alternate favorably given enough time.
- relief from continual issues
Yoga is mainly appropriate for having control over breath and spine. Breath and backbone are like wild animals. You pressure them to do some thing they pounce on you. You coax them, be patient with them, they may be tamed to any volume. Many Yoga stretches make the spine sturdy and bendy. again and again Yoga has proved to be a blessing for all styles of issues of the lower back. The technique of exhaling twice longer than breathing in (Pranayama) offers abundant deliver of oxygen to blood and lots of impurities of blood are cured. The deliberate exhaling approach (Shwasanmargshuddhi) cleanse the nasal passage and the sinuses. They help get rid of continual sinus hassle or clogging of nasal passage for plenty people. That makes the lungs and respiration organs stronger. The stomach breathing approach (Kapalbhati) facilitates people with asthma or susceptible diaphragm to respire effortlessly.
- awareness of mind
practice of Yoga allows in getting higher recognition of mind. Meditation, being part of Yoga, teaches you a way to consciousness better and achieve extra from any pastime. Dharana, which means narrowed focus on a subject with the aid of restricting Chitta (thoughts) is one of the eight limbs of Ashtangayoga. It teaches you to do away with all different mind from the thoughts and attention on the goal. human beings have benefited relatively in terms of focus of thoughts with the aid of doing meditation (Dhyana) and Dharana at some stage in all ages.
- advantages at now not-so-perfect degree
even supposing one can not obtain perfection in an Asana, the advantages of an Asana are nevertheless available at a now not-so-perfect level including calmer thoughts, better flexibility, higher blood pressure, lower pulse fee and better endocrine feature. whatever state of Asana one is in, if one continues the pose with ease, body gets the necessary rubdown and stretch. there’s a better secretion of endocrine glands due to the regular and sufficient stretch. The mind cells get the necessary indicators and thoughts becomes calmer. Breath is greater controlled and as a result feels refreshed. All of this occurs irrespective of the level of perfection. it’s the steadiness and level of consolation this is more essential than perfection.
origin and philosophy of Yoga:
a few of the many proponents of Yoga, Patanjali (2nd century B.C) is the most well known and most respected of all and is properly prevalent as the founder of Yoga. His ebook Shripatanjali Darshan that is a collection of hymns (also called as Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras) is held in excessive esteem by using the experts and practitioners and is referred to as one of the maximum revered reference ebook (a workbook for actual practice) on Yoga. Patanjali’s Yoga is called Patanjala (that of Patanjali) and is also considered as Rajayoga, which means the royal Yoga or the very best, elegant Yoga since it consists of practices that lead to spiritual liberation (Moksha). Rajayoga is part of Sankhya philosophy and is understood to evoke Kundalini (whole establishing of Chakra when reached in transcendental state of meditation) and results into complete religious enlightenment if practiced regularly.
Patanjalayoga is likewise known as Ashtangayoga since it has eight dimensions or 8 limbs. Ashta manner eight and Anga way measurement or a limb in Sanskrit. Yama (guidelines for the social life), Niyama (regulations for non-public development), Asana (Yoga Posture), Pranayama (extended and managed respiration), Pratyahara (withdrawal of senses), Dharana (narrowed specializing in a topic), Dhyana (endured revel in of meditation), Samadhi (transcendental state wherein there’s best an essence of pure existence) are the eight limbs of Ashtangayoga. the primary four dimensions make up the exoteric (Bahiranga) part of Ashtangayoga even as the final four dimensions make up the esoteric (Antaranga) part of Ashtangayoga. Out of the eight limbs of Ashtangayoga, Asana and Pranayama are the handiest limbs that typically stand for the time period Yoga in its maximum popular shape.
within the 15th century A.D. Yogi Swatmaram founded one of the six structures of Yoga called Hathayoga. although the term Hatha in Sanskrit approach being forceful, Hathayoga is not approximately Hatha but is about the stability among the two principles of the frame. Ha and Tha are basically symbols. Ha way surya (solar). Tha approach chandra (moon). proper nostril (Pingala) is the Surya nadi at the same time as the left nostril (Ida) is the Chandra nadi. just the manner the sun and the moon stability the life cycle of the sector; the two nostrils balance the lifestyles cycle of the frame. Nadi is a channel via which the existence force flows. Hathayoga enables to hold this balance with the aid of correcting the useful disorders of the body and bringing intellectual peace. Hathayogapradipika is the standard textbook on Hathayoga written with the aid of Yogi Swatmaram. Hathayoga accepts Patanjala Yoga as standard. although it’s a completely unbiased school of philosophy in its very own right, it is basically primarily based upon the philosophy of Rajayoga expounded in Patanjali’s Yogasutra.
In reality, every faculty of philosophy culminates into Rajayoga because the aim of every school is the same as Rajayoga i.e. to acquire ever-lasting peace and happiness.
a. Asana (frame positions or stretches e.g. mountain pose, cobra pose)
b. Pranayama (controlled respiratory techniques e.g. Ujjayi, Anuloma Viloma)
c. Kriya (cleansing processes e.g. Kapalbhati)
d. Bandha and Mudra (Locks and image poses e.g. Udiyana bandha, Jivha bandha, Simhamudra)
As in step with Hathayoga, Asana, Pranayama, Kriya, Bandha and Mudra are stepping stones to gain the last psycho spiritual impact of Rajayoga. they invent the important basis of solid and calm thoughts and frame for Rajayoga. There are however diffused variations among Patanjala Yoga and Hathayoga. Patanjali emphasizes more on the psycho spiritual effect of Yoga in preference to the bodily components and actual strategies of Asana and Pranayama. His Asana and Pranayama also are plenty less difficult and less difficult to do than those in Hathayoga. For this he recommends least quantity of efforts (Prayatnay Shaithilyam) and retaining a regular, rhythmic tempo and a stable, secure body position. Patanjali’s Yogasutra talk Asana and Pranayama best within the bankruptcy of Kriyayoga (a part of Sadhana pada) as the device to gain physical and intellectual fitness. then again, the emphasis of Hathayoga is greater at the techniques of Asana and Pranayama, Kriya, Bandha and Mudra.
Philosophy of Yogasutra:
Patanjali’s Yogasutra consists of 195 sutra and 4 Pada (sections or chapters): Samadhi pada, Sadhana Pada, Vibhuti Pada and Kaivalya pada. Kriyayoga, the chapter on the actual exercise of Yoga is a part of Sadhana Pada (section about the approach of observe and exercise of Yoga). Kriyayoga discusses Asana and Pranayama viz. the physical a part of Yoga. just to provide a glimpse of Patanjali’s philosophy, right here are a few mind from the Samadhi Pada and Sadhana Pada of Yogasutra:
in keeping with Patanjali, which means and motive of Yoga is to reap Samadhi (closing transcendental nation wherein there may be feel of pure life and not anything else). Yoga is a union of thoughts and frame. it is in comparison with a peaceful river, which flows down towards its inclined bed without efforts. accordingly Yoga is more than a bodily exercising. a good way to pay attention your mind is the greatest advantage of Yoga. Yoga is nothing however self-study. reason of Yoga is to be self-aware. Yoga teaches you to be nearer to nature and lead a wholesome lifestyles. For this you need willpower and religion in Yoga.
Tapa (austerities), Swadhyaya (analyzing of scriptures), Ishwarpranidhana. Tapa is to make body alert and active glowing with health. Swadhyaya is the continuous study to sharpen the intellect. these sadhanas are to be used to wipe out faults of human nature. There are five kleshas (terrible inclinations) inclusive of avidya (lack of awareness), asmita (ego), Rag (appeal-affection), dwesh (hatred) and abhinivesh (self insistence, stubbornness). these 5 vrittis disappear through Dhyana.
Yogaschittavrittinirodhah. by way of practice of Yoga, all of the purposeful modifications of the mind completely cease.
manipulate of your mind is what Yoga is ready. you have to contain your mind in the Asana. Asana is an device to Yoga. frame postures, protection and rounds of an asana are to be done in line with one’s very own capability. Retention is more appropriate than repetition. Meditation can not be separated from Yoga.
Prayatne Shaithilyam anantha samapatti. while doing Yogasana (Yogic postures), two things need to be located. One is to be cozy mentally and bodily. the second is Anantha samapatti. It way to merge with something limitless. Patanjali says that every one excellent matters happen while you prevent trying difficult. You emerge as one with Ishwara, you allow pass your manipulate and neglect that you are specially frame posture. Yoga must be the way of lifestyles.
Yoga chitasya malam apakarot, Padena vachanam malam, sharirasya cha vaidyaken yo apakarot. The speech is advanced with the aid of reading loud a Pada (stanza of a poem) and a medical doctor healing procedures the illnesses of frame. similarly, Yoga treatment plans and cleanses an ill mind.
according to Samadhipada, all sorts of intellectual and physical issues which includes ailment, laziness, doubts and suspicions, disobedience, misunderstandings, temptations, dangerous mind are the modifications of Chitta (mind). consequences of those changes are unease, instability, shakiness and disturbances of inhalations and exhalations. Patanjali says that via overall awareness and steadfastness and a normal practice of Yoga, it is easy to remove all these issues.
Ishwarpranidhanadva but if that is very difficult for someone, there is another manner to acquire overall health and peace and that is to give up to God (Ishwarpranidhanadva). in keeping with Samadhi pada, if you have no information in any respect, give up to God absolutely and you will benefit understanding.